Coherence & Cohesion

Coherence: the situation in which all the parts of something fit together well. It means the logical and structural composition of words, sentences, and paragraphs. It is used to connect ideas within each sentence and paragraph for others to understand exactly what is being conveyed. If your report, letter, or essay lacks coherence, the examiner deducts marks as he/she is unable to grasp what is being expressed. Coherence as a whole evaluates the assembling of ideas and data present.

Cohesion: the act or state of keeping together. It means linking ideas through connectors, linking words or phrases. It focuses more on the grammatical side of associating two separate sentences. Cohesion makes your written material more systematic and presentable. Cohesion directly tells the relationship between two sentences i.e. how they’re truly related. Words that can be used for good cohesion are linking words, transition words, synonyms and antonyms, different phrases.

IBC Structure: Introduction, Body, and Conclusion


〇 問題提起と主張


〇 通常2~3つの段落で構成される。

〇 段落ひとつに、メッセージひとつ。


〇 結論。冒頭のIntoroductionの主張からブレない。

〇 IntroductionをParaphrase(言い換え)する。

Paragraph: 基本的に、ひと段落は3部構成になっています。
Topic Sentence: It is usually the first sentence. It tells you what the paragraph is about.
Supporting Sentence: It gives more information about the topic sentence.
Concluding Sentence: It ends the paragraph.

(例)Title: A Typical Work Day
My aunt has a great job at an organization sanctuary. She is the daytime babysitter for a five-month-old orangutan named Coco. Coco’s mother died, so they need to take care of her 24 hours a day. When my aunt arrives in the morning, she gives Coco milk in her bottle and changes her diaper. She does this several times a day. Then she works as her teacher teaching her the skills she needs for living in the forest, such as climbing. Coco likes to climb up, but not down! She screams for my aunt’s help sometimes. My aunt hugs her when she gets scared. In the early evening, it’s Coco’s bedtime and their time together that day is over. They put her to bed and go home. My aunt says, ‘I love Coco, and I love my job!’

画像参照: https://redapes.org/projects-partners/nyaru-menteng/

Writing Task